ebc - background
If we have a look to the inside of a battery cell on a microscopic level, we can see various molecular changes and degradation over time, that will make us realize that every battery cell is a world unto its own. Therefore aging is heterogeneous.
Nevertheless, we are connecting these cells in series to achieve a high-voltage / high-performance battery pack. To balance the inequalities of cells a battery-management-system is attached. Today’s Battery-Management-Systems - BMS are balancing systems; either balancing all cells to an equal end-of-charge-voltage (passive balancing) or continuously balancing along a voltage curve / State-of-Charge - SoC (active balancing). Both are not managing a battery system but balancing systems and monitoring the death of the battery.
The ideal battery
Instead of the old and inefficient balancing systems imagine a battery MANAGEMENT system that
This will result in homogeneous aging of all battery cells. Thus, the lifetime of the battery pack will be maximized, the performance will be increased, and the control of health will provide highest safety. The system would be a completely self-controlled system: self-initiating, self-validating, self-monitoring, self-controlling. At the end of its first life the battery pack will have completely matched cells and can be used in a “second-life”-application e.g. be plugged to your photo-voltaic system without touching a cell or module (black-box).